Lectionaries

IV Easter, Year A

Main Text

Gospel Anthropological Reading
Gospel Historical/Cultural Questions
Gospel So What?

Epistle Anthropological Reading
Epistle Historical/Cultural Questions
Epistle So What?


Main Text

Acts 2:42-47
Those who had been baptized devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers.

Awe came upon everyone, because many wonders and signs were being done by the apostles. All who believed were together and had all things in common; they would sell their possessions and goods and distribute the proceeds to all, as any had need. Day by day, as they spent much time together in the temple, they broke bread at home and ate their food with glad and generous hearts, praising God and having the goodwill of all the people. And day by day the Lord added to their number those who were being saved.

1 Peter 2:19-25
It is a credit to you if, being aware of God, you endure pain while suffering unjustly. If you endure when you are beaten for doing wrong, what credit is that? But if you endure when you do right and suffer for it, you have God’s approval. For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you should follow in his steps.

"He committed no sin,
and no deceit was found in his mouth."
When he was abused, he did not return abuse; when he suffered, he did not threaten; but he entrusted himself to the one who judges justly. He himself bore our sins in his body on the cross, so that, free from sins, we might live for righteousness; by his wounds you have been healed. For you were going astray like sheep, but now you have returned to the shepherd and guardian of your souls

John 10:1-10
Jesus said, "Very truly, I tell you, anyone who does not enter the sheepfold by the gate but climbs in by another way is a thief and a bandit. The one who enters by the gate is the shepherd of the sheep. The gatekeeper opens the gate for him, and the sheep hear his voice. He calls his own sheep by name and leads them out. When he has brought out all his own, he goes ahead of them, and the sheep follow him because they know his voice. They will not follow a stranger, but they will run from him because they do not know the voice of strangers." Jesus used this figure of speech with them, but they did not understand what he was saying to them.

So again Jesus said to them, "Very truly, I tell you, I am the gate for the sheep. All who came before me are thieves and bandits; but the sheep did not listen to them. I am the gate. Whoever enters by me will be saved, and will come in and go out and find pasture. The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy. I came that they may have life, and have it abundantly."

New Revised Standard Version Bible, copyright 1989, Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

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Gospel Anthropological Reading

We have observed that the gospels elucidate the phenomenon of mimesis, both negative mimesis and positive mimesis. The Johannine text juxtaposes both nicely here in chapter 10 using the images of the thief and the mugger (the pirate, the brigand) to illustrate the character of negative mimetic leadership and that of the shepherd to demonstrate the character of good mimetic leadership.

How do we get leadership from our text? There are many indicators. The first, and most direct, is the use of the ‘ego eimi’ in vs 7, both Wayne Meeks and T.F. Glasson have suggested that the figure of Moses as the shepherd-leader of Israel illuminates our text. The second concerns a potential background referent, Ezekiel 34 and the distinction between good and evil shepherds (= leaders). The third is the use of shepherd imagery in the New Testament for ecclesial leadership. Finally, the ‘mission’ or ‘purpose’ of the shepherd is made explicit (vs 10), agendas are revealed, plans are exposed and character is made plain. This is the stuff of leadership.

Literature on leadership abounds. In both secular and religious spheres, books on leadership proliferate faster than fruit flies. Bookstores have entire sections devoted to leadership and management. But rare is that book which in the end explicates leadership that is positively mimetic. Most leadership books assume competition to be a positive element in leadership; a competitive spirit is seen as essential to climbing the ladder of success. We confess (as semi-sports junkies) that there are certain aspects of competition that we fall prey to, that we enjoy. However, sports competition is just entertainment of that which permeates our culture, our lives, our very existence. So called healthy competition, a mimetic desiring to one-up by the rules grows alongside with and stems from the same origin as unhealthy competition, a mimetic desiring that doesn’t give a damn about the rules. You can see this in contemporary political rhetoric concerning the importance of being a country under ‘the rule of law’, that is regulating mimetic activity (into right and wrong, good and bad).

Yes, the mimetic mechanism is clear in sports. The desire to be better than the person opposite you, rivalry, and losers (scapegoats) are all evident. It is also clear in the democratic political process. It is just as clear in boardrooms and bedrooms. School, church, home, work, it really doesn’t matter, the competitive model is everywhere.

In America today we are experiencing a crisis of leadership. Sports have become defiled and plagued with scandal; politics is losing its luster and ethical lapses are devouring the politicians, CEO’s who wreak financial havoc for personal gain are being admitted to cozy surroundings in federal prisons. Our celebrities are featured on Page 1 especially when they ‘break the rules.’ All of our icons are falling or have fallen. Why? Because negative mimesis will inevitably lead to becoming a ‘thief and a robber.’ Both the one who sneaks in by night, the cat burglar, and also the one who takes what they want by force, both extremes are taken into account (the manipulator and the bully).

The good shepherd is not like either of these. The good shepherd is described in ‘feminine’ nurturing categories. Positive mimetic leadership is nurturing leadership. Positive mimetic leaders are there to assist the other to be the best they can be. They will not mind if the student becomes as they are or even greater (‘greater things than these shall you do’). Real leadership is about tending to the other, facilitating growth.

There are two tandem essays in the book Violence Renounced that are important background for our discussions of positive mimesis, Jim William’s ‘King as Servant, Sacrifice as Service: Gospel Transformations” and Willard Swartley’s “Discipleship and the Imitation of Jesus/Suffering Servant: The Mimesis of New Creation.” These essays explore the real differences in mimetic leadership and what authentic servant leadership would look like.

The good shepherd comes to bring life in its fullest, richest and deepest senses. The good shepherd ‘exists for the other’ (Bonhoeffer), and would even give their life for the sake of the other. The good shepherd does not take life but nurtures it. We have such a good shepherd who dwells with us and in us. Thanks be to God!

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Gospel Historical/Cultural Questions

Dodd, following J.A.T. Robinson sees in John 10:10-5 the fusion of two Synoptic like parables. We should not be surprised for we have observed that the differences between the Synoptic and the Johannine portraits of Jesus are a matter of form and not content. That John should call this a paroimia, while the Synoptists prefer parabole, is an indication that we are dealing with a mashal(im) of Jesus.

Sir Edwin Hoskyns, The Fourth Gospel, is essential reading on this passage. “Through the life and death of Jesus, Christians not only have life, but have it abundantly. This does not mean that they have life more richly than other people. Their life is different in kind; and it is abundant because it is life according to the will of God; and, in being the consequence of [God’s] action, it is measureless and unlimited.”

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Gospel So What?

What kind of leaders do we follow? Who do we esteem, value or hold dear? Are our models competitive or serving? Whom do we desire to be like, to aspire to? Who is it that captivates our attention? Who do we find ourselves thinking about? When we answer these questions we will have already answered the question “what kind of leader are we?” The latter question is frequently the primary question asked in leadership books. It should be, instead, the second question for when it is put first the mimetic role of our own models (internal or external) is hidden from us.

Some sermon thoughts.

Lately, I have been called to model some different forms of leadership within the preaching sphere. I have lost count of the number of times that I have been told in preaching classes or preaching texts (I’ve read a lot of them because I sometimes teach homiletics in our local theological school.) that it is "inappropriate" for the preacher to bring too much of herself or himself into the pulpit. It is inappropriate for us as preachers to "draw attention to ourselves."

I think this plays into the very mimetic trap into which we as "leaders" are constantly tempted to fall. We are not to talk about ourselves because we are to be one of the group, but one set apart in some ontological way (in other words, we are to become a model worthy of rivalry).

I am convinced, as I try to work out this understanding of violence and mimesis that I am called to break these molds of ministry, to break some rules.

And it pays.

I have taken to "witnessing" to the power of the Gospel in my own life, rather than resorting to cute or moving anecdotes about other people.

I have shared my pain, my need for the prayers and witness of my own congregation, and my trust than in them I will find the same strength they seek from me. I don’t do this every week, or even every other week, but when the text and my own prayers call for it.

And it pays.

I can only say that there is in our congregation a new excitement about the Gospel. People don’t always understand what it is I’m up to, but they like how church feels.

Try being the leader who isn’t caught in the mimetic web.

It pays.

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Epistle Anthropological Reading

This section of this particular page is not yet completed, but will be done a few weeks before the Sunday in question. It will be the heart of the discussion, offering an anthropological ("Girardian") reflection on the lectionary texts. It will be complemmented by the other sections, but this will be the primary material. Back to top


Epistle Historical/Cultural Questions

This section of this particular page is not yet complete. In it, there will be materials pertinent to the historical/cultural setting of the texts under consideration, to the extent that they contribute to a non-violent understanding of the text. (We won’t re-hash historical/cultural materials that are well known and add nothing to the "peace" discussion.) Back to top


Epistle So What?

The "so what" section for each week will go here. Less scholarly, more reflective. In this section, we’ll try to give our answer to the questions, "Okay, that anthropological stuff is nice, but "so what?" How do I use this in a sermon? How do I relate this to my congregation’s world?" Back to top