Lectionaries

I Christmas, Year A

Main Text

Gospel Anthropological Reading
Gospel Historical/Cultural Questions
Gospel So What?

Epistle Anthropological Reading
Epistle Historical/Cultural Questions
Epistle So What?

 

Main Text

Is 61:10-62:3
Ps 148
Gal 4:4-7
Lk 2:22-40

(Isaiah 61:10-11)
I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, my whole being shall exult in my God; for he has clothed me with the garments of salvation, he has covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decks himself with a garland, and as a bride adorns herself with her jewels. For as the earth brings forth its shoots, and as a garden causes what is sown in it to spring up, so the Lord GOD will cause righteousness and praise to spring up before all the nations.


(Isaiah 62:1-3)
For Zion’s sake I will not keep silent, and for Jerusalem’s sake I will not rest, until her vindication shines out like the dawn, and her salvation like a burning torch. The nations shall see your vindication, and all the kings your glory; and you shall be called by a new name that the mouth of the LORD will give. You shall be a crown of beauty in the hand of the LORD, and a royal diadem in the hand of your God.

 

(Galatians 4:4-7)
But when the fullness of time had come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, in order to redeem those who were under the law, so that we might receive adoption as children. And because you are children, God has sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, "Abba! Father!" So you are no longer a slave but a child, and if a child then also an heir, through God.

(Luke 2:22-40)
When the time came for their purification according to the law of Moses, they brought him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord (as it is written in the law of the Lord, "Every firstborn male shall be designated as holy to the Lord"), and they offered a sacrifice according to what is stated in the law of the Lord, "a pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons." Now there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon; this man was righteous and devout, looking forward to the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit rested on him. It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not see death before he had seen the Lord’s Messiah. Guided by the Spirit, Simeon came into the temple; and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him what was customary under the law, Simeon took him in his arms and praised God, saying, "Master, now you are dismissing your servant in peace, according to your word; for my eyes have seen your salvation, which you have prepared in the presence of all peoples, a light for revelation to the Gentiles and for glory to your people Israel." And the child’s father and mother were amazed at what was being said about him. Then Simeon blessed them and said to his mother Mary, "This child is destined for the falling and the rising of many in Israel, and to be a sign that will be opposed so that the inner thoughts of many will be revealed–and a sword will pierce your own soul too." There was also a prophet, Anna the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was of a great age, having lived with her husband seven years after her marriage, then as a widow to the age of eighty-four. She never left the temple but worshiped there with fasting and prayer night and day. At that moment she came, and began to praise God and to speak about the child to all who were looking for the redemption of Jerusalem. When they had finished everything required by the law of the Lord, they returned to Galilee, to their own town of Nazareth. The child grew and became strong, filled with wisdom; and the favor of God was upon him.

New Revised Standard Version Bible, copyright 1989, Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

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Gospel Anthropological Reading

All of themes of mimetic theory can be found here. The temple as a place of substitution, sacrifice, atonement, ritual and prohibition are all present.

The temple as a theme will occupy our attention as we go through the gospels. It plays a major role in both Judaism and early Christianity. Jesus’ relation to the temple is a matter of intense scholarly debate. However we understand it, it is important to recognize that even if Jesus rejected the sacrificial system, he did so as an affirmation of Jewish faith. He never sees himself apart from the people of God. It is not Jewish faith that is being attacked but the religious-political-economic structure that had developed around it. In short, Jesus echoes the critique found in the Prophets.

Chilton puts it well. “The Temple of Jesus was the focus in Jerusalem of Israel’s cultic routine. It was not an ideal or a vision, but the place where sacrifice was in fact offered. Jesus’ innovation lay not in calling for a removal or rebuilding of that place, but in insisting that the kingdom of God would be disclosed when all Israel joined in the pure sacrifice enacted by righteousness and forgiveness.”

(But that is a discussion for another Sunday.)

A key point in our text is that the revelation of God’s salvation comes in the midst of the sacrificial system, the system of substitutes. There are any number of substitutions in the temple: foreign and local currency can be exchanged for sacrificial offerings which are an exchange for the worshipper. The worshipper is twice removed from God. In the midst of this system of substitution Jesus comes as the substitute for God and before God as the substitute for each of us. In short, he is the final, the ultimate substitute, the one whose substitution puts an end to all substitution.

The prophecy of Simeon that Jesus will be a sign that will be spoken against clearly suggests the process of scapegoating to which Jesus will be subject. He will be isolated as the mob seeks one against whom it can unite. His mamzer status will socially marginalize him. He will be betrayed and abandoned by his intimates. In his trial, he will be falsely accused.

In this foreshadowing of the Passion, Girard’s observations on the character of the gospel narrative, the way that it exposes the scapegoating process, ring true because they describe on an anthropological level what the Gospel asserts on a theological level, that is, a theology of the Cross. It all starts here. Here is where revelation begins to emerge. And what will be revealed? God does not retaliate. “Father, forgive them, they don’t have a clue what they are doing.” Jesus blood speaks a better word than that of Abel. And that is the ‘consolation of Israel.’

The event of the death of Jesus will constitute revelation, “the thoughts of many are revealed.” It will be revealed that “we have murdered God” (Nietzsche). The Gospel story itself, the story about Jesus, is a story that affirms his innocence, as opposed to “myth” which constantly declares the victim guilty. “Jesus did nothing to warrant the way he was treated by his contemporaries.” The gospel destroys the effectiveness of all myth with this announcement. The final verdict on mimesis, violence and death is in. Jesus is innocent, but God does not repay evil for evil. Jesus’ resurrection is proof that God triumphs over human violence not with more violence, but with more life.

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Gospel Historical/Cultural Questions

The narrative of the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple presents some unusual possibilities for the preacher. As in the previous Sunday’s text, it is crucial to keep in mind the socio-political background, in this case, though, it is not the Roman empire that is in view but that of Jewish salvation history.

This can be seen in:

1. The temple in Jerusalem as the narrative setting for the story.
2. The allusions to the Hebrew Scriptures. Tannehill observes that the neuter ‘soterion’ (salvation) which is used four times in the New Testament (3 of them in Luke-Acts) is found throughout Isaiah 40-66. Fitzmeyer and Marshall both see numerous antecedents in Isaiah as well.
3. The theme of promise-fulfillment is highlighted in Simeon’s prophecy.

This is the second Temple scene in the Infancy Narrative of Luke. The temple figures prominently in Luke-Acts. It opens and closes the Gospel and opens the book of Acts. By the time Luke composes his gospel though, the temple in Jerusalem stands in ruins after the crushing defeat of the revolution under Titus. Though it has been argued that some temple sacrifices were being offered from 70 C.E. to the final destruction of Jerusalem under Bar Kochba in 135 C.E., Luke’s audience would have been aware that the temple was no longer the institution it was just decades before (the best overall discussion is in the revised Schurer, Vol. 2).

At the time of Jesus the temple was one of three pillars upon which Judaism was established (the Torah and the Land being the other two). In our own time, when the remaining ruins of the Temple (the ‘wailing wall’) threaten to crumble, it is difficult to imagine the size and importance of this institution. During times of festal pilgrimage, it could hold between 80-100,000 people (numbers you only see nowadays at a college football game or protest!). The doors to the temple were 80 feet high and took 200 men to open them each morning and close them each night. The creaking of the doors, made of Corinthian bronze, could be heard all around Jerusalem and its environs. The temple served as the depository of the wealth of the rich and powerful. It had its own fortress and complement of Roman soldiers. In it were all the treasures of Jewish history. It was a place of great importance politically, economically and religiously.

Herod’s temple was one of the wonders of the ancient world, but to us it is an archeological ruin. In order to get a ‘feel’ for the temple in the gospels, we need to exercise a certain historical imagination. Ever been to a slaughterhouse? Can you smell the burning flesh from the altar? Can you feel the fear in the livestock? Can you hear through the din of thousands of conversations and prayers? How do you move as you make your way through the crowds?

Everyone knew that the temple priesthood was controlled by four families in Jerusalem, the house of Annas supplying seven high priests from Herod to the downfall of Jerusalem. The house of Annas had a monopoly on the ‘meat market’ located in the temple vicinity, and thus the money exchange system (only Tyrian gold was accepted). It was all about the economics of religion. It was a booming business.

It is in this context that two old folks happen upon a couple carrying a child. They do not come together, their encounters with Mary, Joseph and Jesus are sequential. They take place one after the other. Luke describes Simeon and Anna in terms that he will use of the early christian movement: Simeon is “righteous and devout and the Holy Spirit is upon him.” Anna is a prophetess and a long time widow. Both await the fulfillment of the promise to redeem Israel. Interesting is the detail by which Anna is described. She is Anna (Hannah) in the house of Annas.

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Gospel So What?

In this week’s lesson, “redemption” is the key. Jesus, the first-born, is redeemed, even as he will redeem us. The question to which the Gospel gives us a new answer is this: “Redeemed from what? From whom?” In the past, Jesus’ death has been preached as the means by which we are redeemed from God’s rightful wrath, but in this scene, the substitution is clear. Jesus is not redeemed from wrath, and neither are we. He is redeemed from the sacrificial system, a system of our own making. The death he dies, he dies for all, so that we might not ever again be subject to the victimage mechanism.

A word of exegetical caution is in order. We must be careful not to assume that the destruction of the temple meant the rejection of Israel by God. The theory, known as supercessionism, whereby Christianity replaces Judaism is rightly disregarded. It is anti-Semitic. Nowhere in the New Testament is Christianity the replacement of Judaism. Our task as Christian interpreters is to see how Jesus’ Jewish critique of the sacrificial religion of his time can be applied to our contemporary Christian practice of faith. To do so will unmask the ‘violence’ we have hidden in our views of God, humanity and all creation.

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Epistle Anthropological Reading

This section of this particular page is not yet completed, but will be done a few weeks before the Sunday in question. It will be the heart of the discussion, offering an anthropological ("Girardian") reflection on the lectionary texts. It will be complemmented by the other sections, but this will be the primary material. Back to top

 

Epistle Historical/Cultural Questions

This section of this particular page is not yet complete. In it, there will be materials pertinent to the historical/cultural setting of the texts under consideration, to the extent that they contribute to a non-violent understanding of the text. (We won’t re-hash historical/cultural materials that are well known and add nothing to the "peace" discussion.) Back to top

 

Epistle So What?

The "so what" section for each week will go here. Less scholarly, more reflective. In this section, we’ll try to give our answer to the questions, "Okay, that anthropological stuff is nice, but "so what?" How do I use this in a sermon? How do I relate this to my congregation’s world?" Back to top